The soils of Belagavi district can broadly classified into red soils and black soils. These soils vary in depth and texture, depending on the parent rock type, physiographic settings and climatic conditions. By and large, black soils predominates the Deccan Trap terrain and the red soils are found in the southwestern and southeastern part of the district in genesis terrain. These soils in turn can be grouped into seven categories as given in table 3, out of which the first five cover large tracks of land while the last two are local in nature.

     Khanapur taluk and parts of Belagavi taluk of the district are covered by alfisols, ultisols and inceptisols. However, Savadatti, Bailhongal and Ramdurg taluks as well as Athani and parts of Chikkodi taluk have vertisols in most area. Raibag and adjoining areas of Chikkodi taluk have inceptisols and entisols. Area wise entisols cover largest area, followed by vertisol area. The overall pH and EC in the district is normal, while organic carbon status in most part of district is above 0.5%. In general, the entire district is deficient in phosphorus (<5ppm) and major part of the district has sufficient potassium (>50 ppm) in soil. Other nutrients like available sulphur (>10ppm), available zinc (> 0.75 ppm) and available boron (>0.58ppm) are in sufficient status in the entire district.

       Organic carbon status of most taluks is more than 0.5% except in Raibag taluk and central part of Chikkodi taluk. In these two taluks most soils are deficient in nitrogen. Entire Bailhongal, Belagavi, Khanapur, Raibag and Chikkodi taluks are deficient in available potassium (<50 ppm) and remaining taluk save adequate potassium (>50 ppm). Entire district has sufficient sulphur in soils. The available zinc status is adequate ( >0.75 ppm) in Khanapur, Belagavi taluks and major part of Hukkeri taluk and half of Athani taluk, while all other taluks have soils deficient in zinc(0.75 ppm). Entire Belagavi, Khanapur, Bailhongal taluks, parts of Gokak and Athani taluks are known to have soils with sufficient available boron (>0.58 ppm). All other taluks have soils deficient in Boron (< 0.58 ppm).

Major soil types  of Belagavi district

Sl.

No.

Soil type Characteristics

1

Deep black soils Deep, moderately well drained, dark grayish brown to very dark grayish brown, calcareous cracking clay to salty clay soils moderately to severely eroded.

2

Medium deep black soil Moderately deep, moderately well drained, dark brown to very dark grayish brown, non calcareous cracking clay to salty clay soils, moderately to severely eroded.

3

Shallow black soils Shallow, well-drained, grey to dark grey and brown clay loam to salty clay loam soils, severely eroded.

4

Red sandy soils Shallow well drained to excessively drained, reddish brown to yellowish brown, gravely sandy loam to sandy clay loam, moderate to severely eroded.

5

Red loam Soils Shallow, excessively drained to well drained, reddish brown to yellowish red, sandy clay loam to sandy loam soils, moderately to severely eroded.

6

Laterite soils Deep, well drained to excessively drain yellowish red to dark reddish brown, gravely, sandy clay and clay surface soils moderately to severely eroded with surface crusting.

Area and per-cent of major soil types of Belagavi district

Major Soils

Area (ha)

Per cent (%) of total

1. Black

224709 ha

51

2. Red

101339 ha

23

3. Sandy Soils

61684 ha

14

4. Sandy loam

52872 ha

12